Project MK-Ultra was an illegal human experimentation program designed and undertaken by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and intended to develop procedures and identify drugs that could be used during interrogations to weaken people and force confessions through brainwashing and psychological torture. It began in 1953 and was halted in 1973.


MKUltra used numerous methods to manipulate its subjects' mental states and brain functions, such as the covert administration of high doses of psychoactive drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals without the subjects' consent, electroshocks, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation, verbal and sexual abuse, and other forms of torture.

MKUltra was preceded by Project ARTICHOKE. It was organized through the CIA's Office of Scientific Intelligence and coordinated with the United States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories. The program engaged in illegal activities, including the use of U.S. and Canadian citizens as unwitting test subjects. MK-Ultra's scope was broad, with activities carried out under the guise of research at more than 80 institutions aside from the military, including colleges and universities, hospitals, prisons, and pharmaceutical companies. The CIA operated using front organizations, although some top officials at these institutions were aware of the CIA's involvement.


Subproject Description Personnel Location(s) Year(s) Notes
Subproject A          [PDF]
Subproject B         [PDF]
Subproject C         [PDF]
Subproject D         [PDF]
Subproject 1 Isolate and characterize the alkaloids of ipomoea sidalia choisy (Rivea Corymbosa) Contractor:    Clearence: TOP SECRET   CIA Monitor(s): Princeton University 1953 ―1954          
Subproject 2 Miscellaneous research and testing services in behavioral modification. 1. Study the possible synergistic action of drugs which may be appropriate for use in abolishing consciousness through animal experimentation. 2. Survey of methods to enable the administration of drugs to patients without their knowledge. Contractor:  James Hamilton   Clearence: TOP SECRET   CIA Monitor(s): Stanford University 1953― 1958          
Subproject 3 (Operation Midnight Climax) Realistic field testing of R&D items of interest to Technical Services Staff. This is the infamous safehouses known as Operation Midnight Climax.   Contractor: George White (alias Morgan Hall, “a seaman”)    Clearence:   CIA Monitor(s): New York City and San Francisco, California       1953― 1956    
Subproject 4 Subprojects 4, 15, and 19 are to fund the contractor, a magician, to write a manual on the various aspects of the magicians’ art which could be useful in covert operations. The result was Mulholland’s Manual, declassified and published in 2009 as The Official CIA Manual of Trickery and Deception. Contractor: John Mulholland    Clearence:   CIA Monitor(s):   1953 ― 1954  
Subproject 5 Successful demonstration of “potentialities of hypnosis as a tool of the clandestine services”. Research in hypnosis was to determine if: hypnosis could be used as a memory enhancer, a learning aid, a polygraph deceiver, etc. Also,research into susceptibility of certain personality types to hypnosis.

Contractor:    Clearence:   CIA Monitor(s):   1953 ― 1956  
Subproject 6 Develop reliable source of LSD within the United States and assist in the search for additional natural hypnotic products. Previously supplier, Sandoz, based in Switzerland. Contractor:    Clearence:   CIA Monitor(s):   1953 ― 1955  
Subproject 7 LSD basic research. The studies included the use of LSD in therapy. As far as is known, subjects in this experimentation were witting. Funds are included for the payment of subjects. Contractor:    Clearence:   CIA Monitor(s):   1952 ― 1956  
Subproject 8 Study of the biochemical, neurophysiological, sociological, and clinical psychiatric aspects of LSD, and also a study of LSD antagonists and drugs related to LSD, such as L.A.E. (Lysergic Acid Ethylamide). Testing upon human volunteers. Contractor:    Clearence:   CIA Monitor(s):   1953 ― 1955  
Subproject 9 Study various depressant drugs which may more adequately control the maniacal psychotic patient, and test drugs that may help alcoholics and schizophrenics. Contractor:    Clearence:   CIA Monitor(s):   1954 ― 1955  
Subproject 10 Study tested and evaluated the effect of LSD and alcohol when administered to individuals falling under various personality categories. Contractor:    Clearence:   CIA Monitor(s):   1952 ― 1957  
Subproject 11  Developing and stockpiling toxins. Identify and produce in sufficient quantity for experimentation the active ingredients in certain seeds and plants. Preparation of a supply of the toxic protein, Abrin. Contractor:    Clearence:   CIA Monitor(s):   1953 ― 1955  
Subproject 12 Isolate and investigate the chemicals responsible for the biological activities of materia1spresent in the bark of Piscidia Erythrina. Contractor:    Clearence:   CIA Monitor(s):   1953 ― 1954

Subproject 13 Funding of Agency activity at Fort Detrick, Maryland. Petty cash fund for use where proper channels for a given activity will require an undesirable amount of written or oral justification. Expedient purchase of materials. Contractor:    Clearence:   CIA Monitor(s):   1953 ― 1955              
Subproject 14 OPERATION BLACK Payment to the Federal Bureau of Narcotics for the services of George White. Harry Anslinger, Commissioner of Narcotics. Contractor:    Clearence:   CIA Monitor(s):   July to November 1953  
Subproject 15 Subprojects 4, 15, and 19 are to fund the contractor, a magician, to write a manual on the various aspects of the magicians’ art which could be useful in covert operations. The result was Mulholland’s Manual, declassified and published in 2009 as The Official CIA Manual of Trickery and Deception. Contractor:    Clearence:   1953 ― 1954  
Subproject 16 A continuation of Subproject No. 3 for realistic testing of R&D items of interest to Technical Services Staff. Contractor:    Clearence:   1953 ― 1954  
Subproject 17 Synthesis of LSD and related compounds by chemical means; and learning the metabolism, site of action, etc., of LSD and related compounds. Contractor:    Clearence:   1953 ― 1955  
Subproject 18 Technical Services Division authorized to spend $400,000 for the purchase of LSD from Eli Lilly. ($400,000 obligated of which only $l,337.45 expended) Contractor:    Clearence:   December 1953  
Subproject 19 Subprojects 4, 15, and 19 are to fund the contractor, a magician, to write a manual on the various aspects of the magicians’ art which could be useful in covert operations. The result was Mulholland’s Manual, declassified and published in 2009 as The Official CIA Manual of Trickery and Deception. Contractor:    Clearence:   1953 ― 1954  
Subproject 20 Prepare a supp1y of the dimannich derivative of Yohimbine hydrochloride for use in other approved projects. Contractor:    Clearence:   1953  
Subproject 21 The original concept was to test the pharmacological activity of various materials (provided by Dr. Geschickter, acting as a cut-out)of interest to the Agency. Contractor:    Clearence:   1953            
Subproject 22 Isolate compounds from natural products which have psychogenic properties. Initially research was done en seeds from the plant Ipomoea sidaefolia Choisy, a Mexican and Cuban trailing vine. Rivea Corymbosa and, the fungus Amanita Muscaria, a mushroom. Contractor:    Clearence:   1954 ― 1963  
Subproject 23 Synthesize new drugs and modify old ones to determine their effectiveness in modifying behavior and the function of the central nervous system. Contractor:    Clearence: University of Richmond 1954    
Subproject 24 Fund meetings at sterile locations for brain-storming sessions by MKULTRA contractors.

Contractor:    Clearence:   1954    
Subproject 25 To determine the applicability of hypnosis techniques for Agency operational usage. Contractor:  Alden Sears   Clearence: University of Minnesota   1954 ― 1955      
Subproject 26 Sub-Project No. 26 is a follow-on from No. 9. Human testing on volunteers of drugs which may aid in the treatment of the schizophrenic patient by either altering his metabolism or producing sedation. Contractor: Carl Pfeiffer   Clearence: University of Illinois     1955 ― 1955       See Subproject 9
Subproject 27   LSD basic research. The studies included the use of LSD in therapy. As far as is known, subjects in this experimentation were witting. Funds are included for the payment of subjects. Contractor: Harold Abramson   Clearence:   1952 ― 1956       See Subprojects 7, 33, and 40
Subproject 28 Study in animals and man drugs, essentially depressants, which affect the central
nervous system.
Contractor:  Carl Pfeiffer   Clearence: Emory University   1954 ― 1955      
Subproject 29 To fund work on hypnosis. The scope was increased to acquiring extensive psychological profiles of all subjects in an effort to develop significant keys to hypnotic susceptibility which may be adaptable to field use. Contractor: Alden Sears   Clearence: University of Denver 1954 ― 1955        
Subproject 30 To add money to a petty cash fund to support an Agency activity at Fort Detrick.   Contractor:    Clearence: Ft. Detrick, Maryland   1958 ― 1960 See Subproject 13
Subproject 31 To supply TSD/CB (Technical Service Division/Chemical Branch) 2 kilograms of a rare organic chemical that is not commercially available.   Contractor:  Pedlow Nease Chemical Company, Inc

Lock Haven, Pennsylvania       1954     See Subprojects 4 and 20    
Subproject 32 To study medicinally active plants which have ingredients of interest to the Agency. This is a continuation of Sub-Project No. 12.

Contractor:    Clearence:   1954 ― 1955   See Subproject 12
Subproject 33 Provide funds to correct an error amounting to $400 which arose in calculating the service project on Project 27. Contractor: Harold Abramson   Clearence:   1954     See Subproject 27
Subproject 34 The application of the magicians’ art to covert activities. Contractor: John Mulholland    Clearence:   1955 ― 1958     See Subprojects 4, 15, and 19  
Subproject 35 To further Technical Services Division’s chemical and biological requirements, a single, non-recurring grant ($375,000) was made to Georgetown Hospital for a new Research Wing (the Gorman building). The arrangement would permit Agency-sponsored research projects, using Agency personnel, to be carried out in the new wing without being aware of CIA interest.   Contractor:  Charles Geschickter   Clearence: Georgetown Hospital         1955        
Subproject 36 To provide funds for a symposium on behavior modification, where MKULTRA principals may exchange ideas in their particular fields.   Contractor:    Clearence:   1954 ― 1955          
Subproject 37 To produce, grow, test and evaluate certain botanicals of interest to CIA. Contractor:    Clearence:   1954    
Subproject 38 To investigate the psychological effects of the drugs chlorpromazine, meratron, serpentine, and bulbocapnine upon human beings.   Contractor:    Clearence:   1954 ― 1955          
Subproject 39 To exploit the research potential represented by a group of 142 criminal-sexual psychopaths confined at the Ionic State Hospital. The Agency believed that patients had the same kind of motivation for withholding certain information that is comparable to operational interrogation situations in the field. Contractor:    Clearence: Ionic State Hospital for the Criminally Insane, Michigan       1954 ― 1959                
Subproject 40 LSD basic research. The studies included the use of LSD in therapy. As far as is known, subjects in this experimentation were witting. Funds are included for the payment of subjects. Contractor:  Harold Abramson   Clearence:   1952 ― 1956     See Subprojects 7 and 27  
Subproject 41 To fund the synthesis of rare organic chemicals that were not commercially available. (Encloxy-3-Methyl-Hexahydrophthalic Anhydride and N,N-Dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine) Contractor:  Pedlow Nease Chemical Company, Inc   Clearence: Lock Haven, Pennsylvania     1955     See Subprojects 20 and 31
Subproject 42 Support and realistically field test certain R&D items of interest to Technical Services Division and to maintain physical facilities required for these trials – also for the covert administration of physiologically active materials to unwitting subjects. The files indicate that Sub-Project No. 42 is a continuation of No. 16, with Morgan Hall’s facilities moved from New York City to San Francisco. Contractor: Morgan Hall (alias for George H. White, Bureau of Narcotics)   Clearence: San Francisco 1955 ― 1964  
Subproject 43 Study to perform research in the field of psychology of the dissociated states and of hypnosis. Contractor:  Louis J. West   Clearence: University of Oklahoma     1955 ― 1956      
Subproject 44 The objective of this research was to develop screening and bio-assay techniques for psychotomimetic (capable of producing a psychotic-like state) agents which do not involve human testing. The work was not classified. Contractor:    Clearence: University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Chicago 1956 ― 1958  
Subproject 45 This project involved the search for, and preliminary testing of, materials (not mentioned) which might alter consciousness and have other physiologic effects (alteration of blood pressure, cardiovascular responses, body temperature or anti-cancer properties). Contractor: Charles Geschickter   Clearence: University of Richmond

1955 ― 1963  
Subproject 46 Research into the mechanics and effects of LSD: (l) Develop a specific antidote; (2) a sensitive method for assaying it in urine and in blood; (3) a screening system for psycho-chemicals; (4) determine the relationship between chemical structures and biological activity in this type material; (5) study the structural relationship between LSD-25 and other similar materials now available. Sponsors: Eli Lilly Company and Public Health Service. Contractor: Harold Hodge   Clearence:   1955 ― 1963      
Subproject 47 Study drugs affecting the central nervous system, looking towards an anti-interrogation drug. Also, to screen and evaluate hallucinogenic materials of interest to Technical Services Division. Testing on human volunteers at Atlanta Federal Penitentiary. Contractor:  Carl Pfeiffer   Clearence: Emory University, New Jersey Neuropsychiatric Institute, Atlanta Federal Penitentiary                                1955 ― 1962            
Subproject 48 (1) Chinese Project which uses BLACKEBLACKEDOUT volunteer students in motivational research studies with the objective of determining the best way to recruit and motivate neutral agents.
(2) Psychological study of defectors
(3) Studied Communist indoctrination techniques and stress psychology in general.
Contractor:    Clearence: Cornell University Medical School         1955     This project also created the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology as a cut-out mechanism.
Subproject 49 Research into the nature of hypnosis and possible operational uses including the use of hypnosis as a learning aid; use in interrogation and counter-interrogation. Uses and limitations of hypnosis. Contractor:  Aldan Sears   Clearence: Psychology Department at the University of Denver, Colorado           1956       See Subprojects 5, 25 and 29    
Subproject 50 To supplement a petty cash at Ft. Detrick. (cancelled by Technical Services Division who did not want the accountings to go outside MKULTRA procedures)     Contractor:    Clearence: Fort Detrick, Maryland 1955   See Subprojects 30 and 13      
Subproject 51 Isolate, characterize and identify naturally occurring compounds with psychogenic properties. Much of this work was done with mushrooms.   Contractor:  James Monroe   Clearence: University of Delaware     1955 ― 1962    
Subproject 52 Provided consulting services on procurement and preparation of chemicals for Technical Services Division. Procured botanical specimens, primarily mushrooms, on field trips. Contractor:  James Monroe   Clearence: University of Delaware   1958      
Subproject 53 Review overt Russian and American pharmacological literature with respect to the problems of Technical Services Division.   Contractor:    Clearence:   1955 ― 1956      
Subproject 54 To study the mechanism of brain concussion. Contractor:    Clearence:   1955    
Subproject 55 Discover the pharmacological effects of certain groups of compounds prepared by and associates of the Department of Pathology. Animal tests were conducted.                                     Contractor:    Clearence:   1956          
Subproject 56 Alcohol Research – Determining effectiveness of food in delaying alcohol absorption; effectiveness of sympathominetic drugs in delaying absorption; develop a test of alcohol tolerance.   Contractor:    Clearence: Stanford University or Medicine 1956 ― 1960  
Subproject 57 Perform research on sleep and on insomnia – with emphasis on narcosis induced sleep. Contractor:    Clearence: George Washington University   1956 ― 1957  
Subproject 58 Finance an expedition, headed by Gordon Wasson for the purpose of studying and collecting hallucinogenic species of mushrooms of interest to TSS/CD. Sponsor J. P. Morgan & Co. of New York unwitting of Agency sponsorship.                                     Contractor:  Gordon Wasson   Clearence: South America           1956      
Subproject 59 Pharmacological testing and evaluation of certain chemical compounds that might have properties of interest to Technical Services Division. Contractor:    Clearence: University of Maryland   1956 ― 1957    
Subproject 60 This project established a covert funding mechanism, the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, Inc., (SIHE), for the support of sociological and psychological studies. Prior to SIHE, this activity was part of the Human Ecology Study Program of Cornell University, which sponsored, with Agency financial assistance, studies primarily at Cornell. Many projects of little or no direct value to CIA were funded, primarily to develop the cover of SIHE as a legitimate Foundation.   Contractor:    Clearence: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, Inc., New York City.

1956 ― 1962      
Subproject 61 Study the role of the human brain in overall adaptive behavior. Specifically, the relationship of changes in behavior due to stress to changes in behavior brought about by loss of cerebral tissues. Contractor:  Harold Wolff, Cornell University Medical School   Clearence: Ithaca, New York     1956 ― 1960      
Subproject 62 Finance studies on the effect of physical and chemical agents on the central nervous system of anthropoids (man-like animals) at National Institute of Health and unspecified involvement with “an LSD Project”. Contractor:  Maitland Balwin, National Institute of Health     Clearence: Bethesda, Maryland   1956 ― 1963      
Subproject 63 The purpose of this project is to maintain the professional services of Robert Hyde to the technical Services Division. Field work observation in taverns and private parties relating to psychopharmaceuticals and alcohol. Contractor:  Robert Hyde   Clearence:   1956 ― 1961     See Subprojects 8, 10 and 66    
Subproject 64 To compensate Dr. Geschickter for personal services rendered but not charged against the funding mechanism account. These services were said to include consultations in personnel and facilities for research programs, covert procurement of drugs and other material, time spent on cover activities with the fund, and personal time spent in covert testing of materials and gadgetry not connected with Geschickter’s Fund projects. Contractor:  Charles F. Geschickter, M.D. Clearence: Washington, D.C.                 1955 ― 1956        
Subproject 65 study on Hungarian defectors of factors which influence human behavior that could be used for achieving intelligence objectives. There were three efforts: (1) To better understand factors which cause an individual to defect, commit treason or change loyalties; (2) To develop skills by which potential defectors can be detected; and (3) To develop methods for increasing the chances of defection of various target individuals. Contractor:    Clearence: Cornell University           1957 ― 1958            
Subproject 66 test a number of techniques for predicting a given individual’s reactions to LSD-25, other psychochemicals and alcohol. Contractor:  Robert Hyde Clearence: Butler Hospital and Health Center     1956 ― 1960  
Subproject 67 Library searches, consultation assessment and evaluation of data submitted by Technical Services Division. Translation and transcription services.     Contractor:    Clearence: University of Indiana       1957  
Subproject 68 To study the effect upon human behavior of the repetition of verbal signals. Patients were treated with LSD-25 and other similar agents to break down patterns of behavior. The plan included intensive repetition of prearranged verbal signals. Patient were kept in sensory isolation then continuous sleep for seven to ten days. Dr. Cameron completed over 100 cases. Contractor:  Ewen Cameron   Clearence: Allan Memorial Institute of Psychiatry at McGill University, Montreal, Canada           1957 ― 1959 (?)        
Subproject 69 To interview Hungarian refugees regarding Sociology of the Communist system in the throes of revolution Contractor:  Ray Stephenson and Jay Schulman   Clearence: Rutgers University     1957  
Subproject 70 Develop a temporary incapacitant drug (“Knockout drug”) and to define mechanisms involved in producing involuntary sleep and related unconscious states. Testing was conducted en animals. Contractor:    Clearence: Stanford University 1957 ― 1961   See Subprojects 57, 71, 72
Subproject 71 The purpose of this project was to continue the utilization of Dr. Dr. Wallace Chan who during this period was located at the department of Medicine, Neurology Division, Stanford University School of Medicine. He did clinical testing and evaluation of anti-interrogation drugs, monitored other projects being performed at Stanford, attempted to develop miniatured polygraph, reviewed literature, attended and reported on meetings, and acted as a consultant. Contractor:  Dr. Wallace Chan   Clearence: Stanford University       1957 ― 1961       See Subprojects 70,72      
Subproject 72 Perform research on the neurophysiological and pharmacological effects of central nervous system antagonists and synergists at Stanford University School of Medicine. Contractor:    Clearence: Stanford University     1956 ― 1957     See Subprojects 70,71  
Subproject 73 Establish whether susceptibility to hypnosis can be increased by use of drugs, such as alcohol, mescaline, scopolamine, LSD, etc. Also, to determine the extent to which various drugs possess specific “hypnosis-like” effects. Contractor:  Harris Isbell Clearence: University of Kentucky, Lexington Kentucky Narcotics Farms

Subproject 74 As the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology (SIHE) became better known in the scientific community and its reputation grew, the CIA decided that in order for to maintain its bona fides with the scientific community, the Society should fund selected smaller research proposals as a “cover”, even though there was little, if any, interest in or prospects for a product of value to CIA from these proposals. Consisted of many (in excess of 25) grantees, both individuals and institutions, in various parts of the United States and the world. Contractor:  Carl Rogers Clearence: University of Wisconsin         1958 ― 1962      
Subproject 75 Studies of the effects of psychotomimetic substances utilizing psychological and physiological observations. Funds were also expended under this sub-project to assist in the publication costs of the proceedings of the symposium on “Specific and Non-specific Factors in Psychopharmacology” of the third World Congress of Psychiatry, Montreal. Contractor:    Clearence:   1960 ― 1961  
Subproject 76 To perform a one-year study on anti-authoritarian behavior as an extension of earlier Technical Services Division work on Communist prison methods as they affect U.S. Prisoners of War. Contractor:    Clearence:   1958 ― 1959  
Subproject 77 Explored the basic elements of two personality theories of David Saunders and attempt to integrate them. Contractor:  David Saunders, Educational Testing Services

Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey   1957 ― 1962      
Subproject 78 To provide complete micro-biological support ranging from research establishing production capabilities to meet Technical Services Division special requirements. Provides cover and acts as a cut-out for special jobs.   Contractor:    Clearence: Bacterial and Pharmaceutical Consultants, Inc.     1957 ― 1964      
Subproject 79 The H. J. Rand Foundation of Cleveland, Ohio agreed to act in the capacity of a “cut-out” for the purpose of funding organizations engaged in very sensitive research.   Contractor:  H.J. Rand Foundation   Clearence: Cleveland, Ohio 1957 ― 1962  
Subproject 80 To provide services of a very sensitive nature to conduct extraction and identification techniques of drugs, toxins and biological entities from human tissues. Contractor:    Clearence:   1958 ― 1962      
Subproject 81 Study of the adjustment of Hungarian refugees including tne psychological testing and examining of some refugees. Contractor:    Clearence: Cornell     1958  
Subproject 82 Problems of adaptation to life in Netherlands of Hungarian refugees of the 1956 uprising.                                     Contractor:  H.A.M. Struik     Clearence: University of Nijmegen, Netherlands

1958 ― 1960      
Subproject 83 To support an editorial and technical survey of graphology, ESP, subliminal perception, hypnosis, truth serums, expressive movements and magic. Graphology Journal and Cover Contractor:  Employee of Society for Investigation of Human Ecology

  1958 ― 1960          
Subproject 84 Study of the induction of high motivation in individuals by means of specific interpersonal relationships. Further to establish the limits of usefulness of hypnosis. Ultimate aim was improvement of agent assessment techniques. Contractor:  Marton Orne Clearence: Harvard University       1960    
Subproject 85 Establishing and substantiating “true identity” of individuals, either staff or agent, through the medium of blood groupings.   Contractor:    Clearence: Stanford University School of Medicine     1958 ― 1959      
Subproject 86 design and build miniature polygraph machines and to study the feasibility of developing a polygraph for use on unwitting subjects.                                      Contractor:    Clearence: Stanford University   1958 ― 1959

Subproject 87 Further research on harassment techniques. This project was to investigate HyperAllergic (allergy-inducing) substances and to provide Technical Services Division with small quantities cf these substances. It was to support Technical Services Division’s “requirement to establish an offensive chemical toxicants capability.” Contractor:    Clearence: John Hopkins University   1956 ― 1966      
Subproject 88 To develop a training package which would assist case officer to understand his and other cultures in order to enhance his agent-handling capabilities. – Cultural Appraisal Contractor:    Clearence: Princeton University

1958 ― 1959    
Subproject 89 To determine the factors leading to the critical decision of certain Hungarian refugees in the United States to return to Hungary. Contractor:    Clearence:   1958 ― 1959    
Subproject 90 To study the scientist in BLACKEBLACKEDOUT to produce a descriptive model of the type likely to come in contact with Americans — and develop strategies for evaluating and influencing such scientists.   Contractor: A. J. Wiener (?)   Clearence: Massachusetts Institute of Technology         1958 ― 1959        
Subproject 91 To perform pre-clinical pha~acology studies required to develop nevi psychochemicals and to test the promising drugs on animals. Contractor: Bio-Research Inc.,Harris Isbell, Charles Geschickter, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT…   Clearence:   1959 ― 1962      
Subproject 92 Research into the feasibility of adapting teaching machines to foreign language training. Contractor:  John Carol   Clearence: Harvard University       1959 ― 1960      
Subproject 93 Study of bacterial and fungal toxins Study (Used in Cuba) Contractor:  Bio-Research Inc and Panoramic Research, Inc,   Clearence:   1962        
Subproject 94 “Investigations of the remote directional control of activities of selected species of animals.” Ultimate purpose was operational use of animals in delivery systems. Systems unspecified – could have included audio and/or photo devices (See 142 for assassination applications). (Implantation of miniaturized stimulating electrodes in specific brain center areas of animals – rats, donkeys, dogs.) Contractor: Bio-Resedarch, Inc. and Panoramic Research Inc

  1959 ― 1962      
Subproject 95 Research in field of cross-cultural meaning systems (emphasis on semantics and communications) in support of agent handling problems and in technical supported political activities. Osgood-Western Psychological Assessment Contractor:  Charles Osgood          Clearence: University of Illinois 1959 ― 1962              
Subproject 96 To secure data on European research attitudes and personality information on researchers. The problem of understanding human behavior. Decision Making-Group Interview Methods Contractor:  George Kelley   Clearence: Ohio State University           1959    
Subproject 97 Process of personality change during psychotherapy. Focus upon schizophrenics with control composed of normal individuals. To provide certain techniques of influencing human behavior that might have significance to the Agency. Contractor:  Carl Rogers     Clearence: University of Wisconsin       1959    
Subproject 98 Research on some Aspects of mass Conversion. A study into the mass psychology involved in brainwashing, mass defection, etc . Contractor:  Kurt Lang   Clearence: Queen’s College   1959 ― 1960      
Subproject 99 Services related to certain physical studies which are required to develop effective materials which will influence the central nervous system. Project also supported studies on the optical rotatory power of solid and liquid crystals. Contractor:    Clearence: Pennsylvania State University     1959 ― 1961        
Subproject 100 Investigations into soil microorganisms and methods by which maximum information could be obtained from samples of soil. Purpose- detection of BLACKEBLACKEDOUTBLACKEDOUT BLACKEDOUT (CBW?) Contractor:    Clearence: Pennsylvania State University     1959 ― 1964        
Subproject 101 For consultative services on the biophysics of the central nervous system; probably on the storage and transfer of energy in organic systems. Contractor:    Clearence: Ohio State University       1959    
Subproject 102 Behavior of naturally formed groups of adolescent boys in Texas and Oklahoma as a function of group membership and environment. Contractor:  Muzafer Sherif   Clearence: University of Oklahoma   1959 ― 1960      
Subproject 103 Study in non-verbal communication to assess communications between 16-year old children at a reunion of those who had attended a Children’s International Summer Village at age 11. Contractor:  Robert Cornack and A.B. Kristofferson   Clearence: Children’s International Summer Villages, Inc.     1959      
Subproject 104 The study of the relationships between the two principal classes of micro-organisms involved in the deterioration of petroleum products for possible use in petroleum sabotage. Contractor:    Clearence: University of Houston     1960 ― 1961        
Subproject 105 To study virulent and non-virulent staphylococci, the varieties of toxins produced by the various staphylococci as well as the intensity will be determined as sub areas in this study. It is expected that the eventual goal of this investigation will be biochemical tests which will identify the organisms of interest. (CBW) Contractor:  BLACKEBLACKEDOUTProfessor of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin   Clearence: University of Wisconsin         1960 ― 1961            
Subproject 106 To study biological systems with particular reference to quantifying the relationships between a stimulus (e.g., Electrodes) and the biological response to that stimulus. Contractor:  Resources Research, Inc.BLACKEBLACKEDOUT   Clearence:   1959 ― 1960        
Subproject 107 Grant to American Psychological Association to support travel of selected psychologists to the BLACKEBLACKEDOUTBLACKEBLACKEDOUT. Establish contact with BLACK psychologists and learn state of the art of BLACK research. Contractor:  American Psychological Association   Clearence:   1960      
Subproject 108 Recruitment of BLAC as source on BLACKEBLACKEDOUT by using his study of behavioral characteristics of BLACKE Grant awarded to get BLAC to become actively interested in establishing sources of information BLACBLACKEBLACKEDOUT Contractor:    Clearence:   1959 ― 1961      
Subproject 109 Study of potential psychopharmacological agents directed to the evaluation of interrelationships between molecular constitution and biological response. Purpose is to obtain data on biochemical ~characteristics of certain substance of interest to Technical Services Division. (CBW) Contractor:    Clearence:   1960 ― 1965    
Subproject 110 To provide a source of exotic pathogens and a capability to incorporate them in effective delivery systems. Establish a production capability and a sufficient supply of material to be maintained in a ready state to meet anticipated requirements. (CBW) Contractor:  Bacteriological and Pharmaceutical Consultants, Inc.   Clearence:   1960 ― 1964            
Subproject 111 To study levels of motivation as related to certain personality characteristics and contribute to Technical Services Division’s long term interest in indirect assessment. One of the factors in making this grant was “to lend prestige to the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, Inc., as a worldwide funding organization.” Contractor:  H.J. Eysenek   Clearence: University of London, UK           1960 ― 1961      
Subproject 112 Children’s Conceptions of Occupational Roles and Status. Grant awarded to support Society for Investigation of Human Ecology’s cover. CIA interest was in its application to selection of technical and scientific careers. – Vocational Studies in Children Contractor: Melvin DeFleur   Clearence: University of Indiana        
Subproject 113 Experimentation related to design, manufacture and formulation of devices and systems utilizing gas propelled sprays and aerosols. Contractor:    Clearence:   1960 ― 1963  
Subproject 114 Continue Dr. York’s study on predictability of behavior during social alcohol (and possibly LSD) drinking and to develop behavioral rating scales which relate directly to the underlying motivation in human behavior. Contractor:    Clearence: Butler Hospital and Health Center 1960 ― 1961      
Subproject 115 Study of the interaction between the mentally disturbed and their environment. To gain further insight into additional factors which may influence human behavior and to achieve further development of the world-wide activities of the Human Ecology fund. Contractor: Eric Allardt and Juhani Mirvas   Clearence: University of Helsinki, Finland     1960      
Subproject 116 To utilize the services of BLACKEBLACKEDOUT for Covert procurement of special biologically active chemicals and other products. Further to arrange for the covert production of special sensitive organic compounds. Contractor:    Clearence:   1960 ― 1964    
Subproject 117 Cross-cultural studies of family structure and personality development. Contractor:  National Institute of Health   Clearence: Cornell University     1960    
Subproject 118 To provide the consulting services of a microbiologist for the Biological Warfare/Chemical Warfare detection program. Contractor:    Clearence: Pennsylvania State University     1960    
Subproject 119 Activation of human behavior by remote means. A review of literature and scientific developments related to the recording, analysis, and interpretation of bioelectric signal from the human organism. Contractor:  Saul Sells   Clearence: Texas Christian University     1960      
Subproject 120 Establish laboratory procedures for testing the effects of drugs on the central nervous systems of animals.   Contractor:    Clearence:   1960 ― 1966      
Subproject 121 Yoruba witchcraft study – African Witch Doctor study. Probably a cover for recruitment of promising young Nigerians. Contractor:  Raymond Prince   Clearence: McGill University, Montreal, Canada   1960 ― 1963  
Subproject 122 To prepare and characterize highly purified NEUROKININ. Neurokinin is presumed to be a major medicator in the stress reaction. Further to study the physiological and pathological significance of neurokinin. Contractor:    Clearence:   1960        
Subproject 123 Investigation of Emerging BLACKEDOUT images. Study expected to add to our knowledge of how BLACK in different social strata are reacting to various stages of independence. (African Attitude Study)   Contractor:    Clearence: Columbia University     1960 ― 1961    
Subproject 124 Investigate the possibility of inducing a drug-like state through the simple expedient of carbon dioxide inhalation. Contractor:  James Hamilton   Clearence: St. Francis Memorial Hospital, San Francisco 1960 ― 1965     See Subprojects 2 and 140    
Subproject 125 Study at the Veterans Administration Center in Martinsburg, West Virginia, studying differential effects of drugs on behavior. The drug was d-amphetamine and the dose level was 10 mg. Contractor:  American Psychological Association, National Institute of Health, Veterans Administration Center BLACKEBLACKEDOUT   Clearence: Veterans Administration Center, Martinsburg, West Virginia 1960 ― 1963        
Subproject 126 Human adaptation to disaster: response to stress and crisis. Results could increase sophistication of CIA’s BLACKEBLACKEDOUT mission. Contractor: Charles Fritz   Clearence: University of Florida, National Research Council 1960      
Subproject 127 A study of the open voting records of a selected group of BLACK voters over a 50-year period.
Anticipated results could contribute BLACKEBLACKEDOUTBLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor:    Clearence:   1950 ― 1962        
Subproject 128 To test a method of rapid hypnotic induction in simulated and real operational settings. Contractor:    Clearence:   1960 ― 1961    
Subproject 129 Computer analysis of bioelectric response pattern significance for polygraph.   Contractor:    Clearence: George Washington University, Leler University of Georgia 1960 ― 1961    
Subproject 130 Investigation of Personality Theory on patients with different symptoms: indirect
Contractor:  William Thetford   Clearence: Columbia University 1961 ― 1962    
Subproject 131 Pay salaries, travel and other expenses of deep cover staff agent in BLACKEBLACKEDOUT Contractor:    Clearence:   1961    
Subproject 132 “Realistic tests of certain R&D items of interest to TSD/CB (Technical Services Division/Chemical Branch), including a facility and personnel for the operational testing with complete non-attributability of sponsors.” Contractor:  Bureau of Narcotics
BLACKEBLACKEDOUT NOT George White (Morgan Hall)   Clearence:
New York and Chicago     1961 ― 1964    
Subproject 133 (1) Information on the microbiological participation in mineral transformation: mineral transforming microorganisms. (2) Grant renewed to research for new and unique approaches to energy production and transformation (bio-batteries). Contractor:    Clearence:   1961 ― 1963        
Subproject 134 Study of relationships between body type and temperament (personality characteristics) for the purpose clandestine indirect assessment. Contractor:    Clearence:   1961 ― 1963      
Subproject 135 Research program involving the clinical testing of biologically active materials, which could be administered transdermally (through the skin) using human volunteer subjects. This project was cancelled before it got underway and monies authorized were transferred to Sub-Project 91. Contractor:    Clearence:   1961  
Subproject 136 ESP Research – Experimental analysis of extrasensory perception. To evaluate the possibility of using extrasensory perception in the intelligence field. Contractor:    Clearence:   1961      
Subproject 137 Handwriting Analysis – Complete an illustrated psycho-lexicon of writing and the written word. (This study on graphology was then 80% complete, and was later published with acknowledgement of the Society for Investigation of Human Ecology support. Possibly Dr. Klare G Toman – HEF-Handwriting Psycholexicon-Graphology (?) Contractor:    Clearence:   1961 ― 1963  
Subproject 138 Research on biomedical instrumentation To develop a capability for remote testing (Polygraph,
EKG, etc.) for use in indirect psychological and medical assessments.
Contractor:    Clearence: University of Texas at Austin     1961 ― 1962        
Subproject 139 Role of avian (Bird Disease) vectors in transmission of disease. Purpose: Support facility for BLACKEBLACKEDOUTBLACKEDOUT. (BW/CW)   Pennsylvania State University     1961 ― 1965      
Subproject 140 Under cover of “Thyroid Research” the project was to design and conduct controlled experiments involving pharmacological and clinical tests on human volunteers. Contractor: James Hamilton
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
St. Francis Memorial Hospital, San Francisco 1962 ― 1965    
Subproject 141 Not specified.     Contractor: Dr. Geschickter
Contractor’s Clearance:
Washington, D.C.     1962      
Subproject 142 Biological studies involving electrical brain stimulation of cold-blooded animals. “Some of the uses proposed for these particular animals would involve possible delivery systems for BW/CW agents or for direct executive action-type operations as distinguished from the eavesdropping application.     1963 ― 1965         BW = Bioweapon, CW = Chemical weapon, Executive Action = Assassination
Subproject 143 To determine if the growth of microorganisms in petroleum products can be markedly increased by the addition of sub-static concentrations of anti-microbial agents. May have wide application to all areas of biological sabotage.   University of Houston           1963 ― 1964      
Subproject 144 Unknown     1963    
Subproject 145 Unknown         1963    
Subproject 146 Provide the services of a plant pathologist to assist in developing a philosophy of limited anticrop warfare. A study was made of sugar cane crop vulnerabilities, on a world-wide basis.     1954 ― 1963      
Subproject 147 Cross-tolerance between psychomimetic drug.                                                 1954 ― 1963    
Subproject 148 To provide a mechanism to utilize the services of BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, a recognized authority in the field of toxicology and pharmacology in support of Technical Services Division activity concerned with influencing animal and human behavior. Contractors: Harold Hodge
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
  1963 ― 1964  
Subproject 149 Support covert and realistic field tests on certain R&D items of interest to Technical Services Division/Biological Branch. Contractor: George White
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
New York City   1964 ― 1966 See Subprojects 3, 16, and 42  
Subproject Description Contractor(s) Location(s) Year(s) Notes